An Introduction to the Properties of Engineering Materials
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A wide range of materials is covered. Emphasis is placed on developing an understanding of the physical and mechanical properties of materials in the context of other subjects that the engineering student will encounter, particularly mechanics, structures and design. The economic considerations involved in the selection of materials are discussed in detail prices quoted are those of February Detailed tables of materials data, in a uniform format, contain all the information necessary to enable the student to solve a wide range of preliminary design calculations.
Also contains numerous problems, useful case studies and comprehensive lists of further reading. In SI units. The Elastic Moduli. Engineering materials : an introduction to their properties and applications M. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Materials science and engineering is a multidisciplinary activity that has emerged in recognizable form only during the past two decades.
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Practitioners in the field develop and work with materials that are used to make things—products like machines, devices, and structures. More specifically:. Materials science and engineering is concerned with the generation and application of knowledge relating the composition, structure, and processing of materials to their properties and uses.
The multidisciplinary nature of materials science and engineering is evident in the educational backgrounds of the half-million scientists and engineers who, in varying degree, are working in the field. Many of these professionals still identify with their original disciplines rather than with the materials community. They are served by some 35 national societies and often must belong to several to cover their.
Thus far, virtually all materials-designated degrees are in matallurgy or ceramics. This situation is changing, if slowly. One recent indication was the formation of the Federation of Materials Societies, in Of the 17 broadly based societies invited to join, nine had done so by October Materials are exceptionally diverse. The scope of materials science and engineering spans metals, ceramics, semiconductors, dielectrics, glasses, polymers, and natural substances like wood, fibers, sand, and stone.
Materials as we define them have come increasingly to be classified by their function as well as by their nature; hence, biomedical materials, electronic materials, structural materials. This blurring of the traditional classifications reflects in part our growing, if still imperfect, ability to custom-make materials for specific functions.
Types of Properties of Engineering Materials
Materials, energy, and the environment are closely interrelated. Materials are basic to manufacturing and service technologies, to national security, and to national and international economies. The housewife has seen her kitchen transformed by progress in materials: vinyl polymers in flooring; stainless steel in sinks; Pyroceram and Teflon in cookware. The ordinary telephone contains in its not-so-ordinary components 42 of the 92 naturally occurring elements.
Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers:International Edition
Polyethylene, an outstanding insulator for radar equipment, is but one of the myriad materials vital to national defense. By one of several possible reckonings, production and forming of materials account for some Man tends to be conscious of products and what he can do with them, but also tends to take the materials in products for granted. Nylon is known far better in stockings than as the polyamide engineering material used to make small parts for automobiles.
The transistor is known far better as an electronic device, or as a pocket-size radio, than as the semiconducting material used in the device and its many relatives. Some materials produce effects out of proportion to their cost or extent of use in a given application. Synthetic fibers, in the form of easy-care clothing, have worked startling changes in the lives of housewives.
Certain phosphor crystals, products of years of research on materials that emit light when bombarded by electrons, provide color-television pictures at a cost of less than 0. The properties of specific materials often determine whether a product will work. In manned space flights, ablative materials of modest cost are essential to the performance of the heat shield on atmospheric reentry vehicles.
New or sharply improved materials are critical to progress in energy generation and distribution. Materials commonly serve a range of technologies and tend to be less proprietary than are the products made of them. The ability thus to control crystal orientation grew out of research by physicists, metallurgists, and even mathematicians. The resulting improvements in properties are proving useful in a widening spectrum of applications.
They include soft magnetic alloys for memory devices, oriented steels for transformers, high-elasticity phosphor bronze for electrical connectors, and steel sheet for automobile fenders, appliance housings, and other parts formed by deep drawing.
The Properties of Engineering Materials - Raymond Aurelius Higgins - Google книги
He modifies these raw materials to alloys, ceramics, electronic materials, polymers, composites, and other compositions to meet performance requirements; from the modified materials he makes shapes or parts for assembly into products. The product, when its useful life is ended, returns to the earth or the atmosphere as waste. Or it may be dismantled to recover basic materials that reenter the cycle. The materials cycle is a global system whose operation includes strong three-way interactions among materials, the environment, and.
The condition of the environment depends in large degree on how carefully man moves materials through the cycle, at each stage of which impacts occur. Materials traversing the cycle may represent an investment of energy in the sense that the energy expended to extract a metal from ore, for example, need not be expended again if the metal is recycled.
For copper the figure is about 5 percent, for magnesium about 1. Materials scientists and engineers work most commonly in that part of the materials cycle that extends from raw materials through dismantling and recycling of basic materials.
Events in this or any other area typically will have repercussions elsewhere in the cycle or system. Research and development, therefore, can open new and sometimes surprising paths around the cycle with concomitant effects on energy and the environment. The development of a magnetically levitated transportation system could increase considerably the demand for the metals that might be used in the necessary superconducting or magnetic alloys.
Widespread use of nuclear power could alter sharply the consumption patterns of fossil fuels and the related pressures on transportation systems. The materials cycle can be perturbed in addition by external factors such as legislation. The Clean Air Act of , for example, created a strong new demand for platinum for use in automotive exhaust-cleanup catalysts. The demand may be temporary, since catalysis has been questioned as the best long-term solution to the problem, but. Environmental legislation also will require extensive recovery of sulfur from fuels and from smelter and stack gases; by the end of the century, the tonnage recovered annually could be twice the domestic demand.
Such repercussions leave little doubt of the need to approach the materials cycle systematically and with caution. Man historically has employed materials more or less readily available from nature. For centuries he has converted many of them, first by accident and then empirically, to papyrus, glasses, alloys, and other functional states.
But in the few decades since about , he has learned increasingly to create radically new materials. Progress in organic polymers for plastics and rubbers, in semiconductors for electronics devices, in strong, light-weight alloys for structural use has bred entire industries and accelerated the growth of others. Engineers and designers have grown steadily more confident that new materials somehow can be developed, or old ones modified, to meet unusual requirements.
Such expectations in the main have been justified, but there are important exceptions.
tipacantily.tk It is by no means certain, for example, that materials can be devised to withstand the intense heat and radiation that would be involved in a power plant based on thermonuclear fusion, although the fusion reaction itself is not primarily a materials problem. This expanding ability to create radically new materials stems largely from the explosive growth that has occurred during this century. Certain semiconductor materials are perhaps the archetypal example of the conversion of fundamental knowledge to materials that meet exacting specifications.
Our basic understanding of most materials, however, falls short of the level required to design for new uses and environments without considerable experimental effort. Hence, it is important to keep adding to the store of fundamental knowledge through research, although much empirical optimization will probably always be needed to deal with the complex substances of commerce. Thorough systems analysis has been used to a moderate extent in materials science and engineering, but it must become basic to the field in view of the complexity of modern materials problems and of the fact that the materials cycle itself is a vast system.
The need for the systems approach is apparent in the ramifications of replacing copper wire with aluminum in many communications uses in which the substitution would not have worked well until a few years ago. The move was triggered by changing relative prices and supply conditions of the metals. A research and development program produced aluminum alloys with the optimum combination of mechanical and electrical properties.