Framing Foreign Policy in India, Brazil and South Africa: On the Like-Mindedness of the IBSA States

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They quickly embraced the phenomenon, however, and harnessed it to their own ends by building tourists' fantasies into their national image and crafting Nepal as a premier tourist destination. Liechty describes three distinct phases: the postwar era, when the country provided a Raj-like throwback experience for rich Americans; Nepal's emergence as an exotic outpost of hippie counterculture in the s; and its rebranding into a hip adventure destination, which began in the s and continues today This book critically evaluates the role of the Federal Reserve System as a player in the international monetary system over the past one hundred years, starting with its initial responsibility under the gold standard and looking ahead to the challenges it will face in the twenty-first century under the fiat standard.

The book is based on a conference of the same name held at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas in September , as part of the Federal Reserve System's centennial, and contributors include many of the most highly regarded financial historians and policymakers.

The response from the inter-national community, and in particular the US, was swift. But peace processes in Indonesia and the Philippines have been some of the most innovative and successful in the world—a model and counterpoint for Thailand and other protracted conflicts.

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Since the s, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand have wrestled with secessionist groups. Each government entered into peace talks then, though without any sincerity or willingness to make significant concessions.


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By the turn of the millennium, the governments of Indonesia and the Philippines began to reevaluate their strategies while insurgents came to the conclusion that the changed global environment and waning capabilities made victory unlikely. Utilizing 83 interviews with foreign policy makers and experts, as well as the analysis of foreign-policy speeches, the author traces key shifts in official foreign policy discourse. In order to evaluate the degree of support for key IBSA Dialogue Forum concepts within national discourse, the author also examines the interplay between official and broader societal discourses on foreign policy.

This analysis combines political science factors foreign policy role conceptions with linguistic factors, thus enabling a qualitative and quantitative comparison of different framings of foreign policy. Extensive empirical material collected during six months of field research in India, Brazil and South Africa allows the author to present a differentiated account of their alleged like-mindedness.

These two regional powers, with a combined population of around million, have been historically intertwined in various cultural, religious, and political ways. Iran was the first country to recognize the emerging independent state of Pakistan in and the Shah of Iran was the first head of state to visit the new nation. While this relationship shifted following the Iranian Revolution, and tensions do exist between Sunni Pakistan and Shi'i Iran, there has nevertheless been a history of cooperation between the two countries in fields that are of great strategic interest to the US: Afghanistan, nuclear proliferation, and terrorism.

Yet much of this history of cooperation, conflict, and ongoing interactions remains unexplored. Alex Vatanka here presents the first comprehensive analysis of this long-standing and complex relationship. In this text, Larsen outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida and goes on to examine the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy.

Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor that are not met by most other international actors but also shows how this curtails analysis of EU foreign policy. The elections also constituted the first time Islamists had ascended to power in the Arab world by democratic means. But did Hamas proceed to govern in the same democratic manner it had displayed during these elections?

Gaza Under Hamas scrutinizes the workings of the Hamas government, tracing how its governance in the domestic arena unfolded. Particular focus is placed on the ways in which the new government reacted to three key challenges to its power: the competitive political system and main opposition party; violent radicalisation and local splinter groups; the need to re-establish societal order and reform the judicial system.

Framing Foreign Policy in India, Brazil and South Africa

The authors of The Geopolitics of Global Energy Resources delve into the energy realm, identifying the infrastructure investments of today that are shaping the use patterns and political dependencies of tomorrow. They explore as well, the prospects for change to more sustainable and democratically accountable forms of energy.

He learns to see the world through new eyes under the tutelage of his beloved grandfather and provides a rare, three-dimensional portrait of this icon for the ages. The focus is on diplomatic practice, looking at the diverse methods used by the international actors involved and how they contribute to its effectiveness. The first section examines how various levels of international actors practice diplomacy.

Nation states are still key actors and they use many methods in embassies, international conferences, international organizations, summit meetings, and more. International organizations are both a forum for multilateral diplomacy and a major set of international actors still growing in significance for global governance diplomacy.


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In addition, a multiplicity of regional or limited membership institutions play a role in global governance. At the transnational level, there is the increasing role of civil society institutions and nongovernmental organizations in international affairs. This is where a new kind of international actors is found, unevenly contributing to global governance diplomacy beyond the control of public authorities. The second section explores the functional level, looking at how diplomacy operates in five areas of global governance: peace and security, economic governance, social issues, human rights, and environmental protection.

Her husband, Massud—a fellow architect—is caught in the crossfire and dies before she can confess to him her greatest secret. Against this background of violence and fear, two outsiders—the young Christian woman Helen and the mysterious Imran from Kashmir—try to find an island of calm in which their love can grow.

In this timely and exhaustive analysis of the political economies of the GCC since the s to the present, Yousef Khalifa Al-Yousef examines the factors responsible for the failure of the states to achieve lasting change in development and security.

Framing Foreign Policy in India, Brazil and South Africa: On the Like-Mindedness of the IBSA States

Focusing on institutional structures where oil wealth has been confined to the few, and the consequences of failed legitimacy at home that has led to dependence on foreign powers, Al-Yousef charts the consistent disparities between governance and the needs of the local population, to the detriment of genuine development. It looks at the roots of the revolution and the forces unleashed during the modernization process under the Pahlavi monarchy.

Malcolm Nance is a 35 year practitioner in Middle East Special Operations and terrorism intelligence activities. Chris Sampson is the terrorism media and cyber warfare expert for the Terror Asymmetric Project and has spent 15 years collecting and exploiting terrorism media. More, the book will map out the cyberspace level tactics on how ISIS spreads its terrifying content, how it distributes tens of thousands of pieces of propaganda daily and is winning the battle in Cyberspace and how to stop it in its tracks.

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The Handbook on the Politics of Antarctica offers a wide-ranging and comprehensive overview of the governance, geopolitics, international law, cultural studies and history of the region. Written by leading experts, the Handbook brings together the very best interdisciplinary social science and humanities scholarship on the Antarctic and Southern Ocean, offering a definitive statement on why the world's only uninhabited continent attracts global attention in terms of science, politics and natural resources - and what can be done to manage it.

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Finally, a note on concepts is in order. The interchangeable use in this article of the notions of idea- tional, moral, principled and normative refers to the shared systems of inter-sub- jective meaning that historically have organised, constrained and animated the foreign policies of Southern states. The paper is divided in four sections. After this introduction, I examine differ- ent conceptions of order and justice in international relations. It is followed by an Downloaded by [ ] at 21 November historical exploration of change in the international order culminating with the current rise of Southern powers in global politics.

The third section deals with dis- tributive justice as a unifying idea around which IBSA states built a common pol- itical agenda in international affairs. More specifically, I assess the IBSA Trust Fund as a trilateral mechanism aimed at promoting a new model of development cooperation based on the principles of South-South solidarity. Finally, in the con- clusions, I sum up the argument, showing the growing influence of IBSA states in changing patterns of relationships with Northern powers.

Order and Justice in International Relations This section identifies and critically reviews three broadly defined approaches to the relationship between justice and order in international politics:. First, there is an exploration of cosmopolitan and liberal perspectives that claim the universal validity of Western values, institutions and economic models.

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They generally assert that the strengthening of liberal international institutions will inevitably lead to a just and stable international order based on a moral system of rules agreed by all members of the international society. Rising States and Distributive Justice It is followed by the realist emphasis on economic statecraft and national inter- est. For them, order, understood mostly in terms of balance of power, should have priority over justice in international relations. Broadly, this view asserts that distributive justice based on economic development and sovereign equality should be the overarching value in international politics even if it will lead to further inter- national disorder and later readjustment to a new world system or historic bloc.

It is worth mentioning that this particular categorisation is approximate and it does not imply a rigidly defined and mutually exclusive set of ideas. What I intend to demonstrate by outlining and discussing these different theoretical positions is how Southern states have combined, at times conflictingly, aspects of these three approaches to justify their views on the reform of global governance structures.

It has none- theless failed to notice ideational and moral motivations behind initiatives such as IBSA. In this regard, and without denying the powerful economic and geopolitical constraints that have his- torically pulled leading Southern states apart, this article is essentially concerned with the understudied ideational elements that have brought them together. The former greatly influenced English School authors in international relations theory, par- ticularly Martin Wight and Hedley Bull, and their work on a rule-based inter- national society.

The latter provided the philosophical and ethical foundations for contemporary authors working on the idea of global government beyond the inter-state system. This system would most likely lead to a highly institutionalised international system, nevertheless still centred on nation-states as its main legal authority. Also borrowing from a Grotian tradition, complex interdependence scholars assert that international institutions are catalysts for inter-state cooperation and a fundamental feature of world politics.

They perceive insti- tutions as impartial frameworks of norms and rules created to facilitate nego- tiation and decrease political uncertainty.

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The US foreign policy doctrine under George W. Bush was also embedded in a neo-conservative liberal ideology that envisaged world peace as a result of forcefully spreading liberal values such as democracy, human rights and trade liberalisation into illib- eral societies. The current UN doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect R2P , which controversially sanctions external military intervention in some situations of mass atrocities, is clearly indebted to this tradition in Western liberal thought. These liberal readings of international order do not take into account the pro- cesses by which states in the South negotiate their membership in the international Donnelley and Sons Company, Bull, op.

Rising States and Distributive Justice society. They assume post-colonial states as passive, rather than reactive, recipi- ents of Western norms and only those capable of incorporating them should be accepted as full members of the international community. Furthermore, Southern states have consistently argued that, despite its humanistic credentials, liberal internationalism has not adequately brought about economic and social distribu- tive justice into the wider international society, which includes newly independent states in Africa and Asia.